Linux Kernel Device Identifier and /dev File System

The Device Identifier in the Linux Kernel

The kernel uses a number to identify devices on the system. The major number identifies which driver is responsible, and the minor number allows a single driver to drive multiple devices.

/dev/pda references the master IDE disk on the primary controller, while /dev/hdb refers to the slave drive. The partitions on these drives are found by adding the partition number to the minor node for that device.

Major Number

The major number is the identifier that tells the kernel what driver to call for a character device special file (/dev). In DDI and pre-DDI 8 drivers, it also separates block from character devices. The major number is not passed to the open routine of the device driver, but it does identify the type of device and the driver associated with that device.

Traditionally, the major number has been used to identify the driver for a device. For example, the /dev/null and /dev/zero devices are managed by driver 1, while the virtual consoles and serial terminals are handled by driver 4. The kernel uses this information at open time to dispatch to the appropriate function for that device.

Since modern Linux kernels are organized on a one-major-one-driver principle, the major number is important. It’s usually best to pass a pointer to the global structure of the device driver to the register_chrdev() routine, not to one local to the module’s initialization function.

Minor Number

The minor number is used by a device driver to distinguish among devices it controls. It is important for programs to be able to tell which drivers manage specific devices (e.g. /dev/zero or /dev/null are both managed by driver 1, and virtual consoles are handled by driver 4).

The kernel uses the dev_t data type (defined in linux/types.h>) to store both the major and minor numbers; 12 upper bits are reserved for the major number and 20 lower bits for the minor number. As a result, only the driver associated with the minor number knows about it; other parts of the kernel don’t use the minor number.

Register_chrdev uses a pointer to this structure to store the major and minor numbers, which it passes to applications when they ask for a character device file. This is important because a program that invokes register_chrdev without knowing the device major and minor number will get a different file name when it tries to open the device.


The /dev/random device is used to supply truly random data. It does so by drawing from the kernel’s entropy pool. This means that if the pool is depleted, reading from it will block until more entropy is available. This prevents attackers from predicting the next output of the device.

The blocking read of /dev/random is a necessary security feature. If an attacker could determine that a certain amount of data was generated at a particular time, they would be able to guess the outcome of cryptographic operations such as key generation.

On modern Linux systems, the /dev/random device no longer blocks unless the system believes it has insufficient entropy to generate random numbers. This is a result of a new syscall, introduced by OpenBSD and known as getentropy(2). The syscall is designed to estimate how much entropy the kernel has, rather than wait for it to deplete. It has replaced the old /dev/random file on Linux systems.


The /dev/urandom device is used to collect entropy from sources that are registered with the kernel-level cryptographic framework, and implement random number generation routines. An administrator can use the cryptoadm(8) utility to configure which providers are used with /dev/random. The /dev/urandom device will block reads if the available entropy is too low.

When “true” random data enters the system, it is counted and a precise counter is updated. This entropy is then passed to an internal random number generator (RNG) and then merged with the existing pool. The /dev/random device reads from the /dev/urandom pool and blocks reads when the entropy counter falls too low.

If the entropy from the /dev/urandom output is not reseeded often enough, an attacker may be able to guess at the next output in a predictable manner. With current technology, however, this attack would require exhausting the entire entropy pool and is therefore astronomically improbably. To combat this issue, it is recommended that the OS save a copy of the /dev/urandom entropy pool at power off.

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Evolution Powerball: A New Era of Gaming

In the vast realm of online gaming, Evolution Gaming has consistently pushed boundaries, and their latest offering, the 에볼루션파워볼, is no exception. Drawing inspiration from the domestic Powerball lottery, this game is a perfect blend of tradition and innovation, offering players a unique gaming experience.

A Glimpse into the Gameplay

At the heart of the 에볼루션파워볼 사이트 are two distinct drawing machines. The primary machine, equipped with 28 balls, draws five numbers in each round. The secondary machine, on the other hand, contains 10 Powerballs, with a single ball being drawn. This dual-machine setup not only amplifies the excitement but also provides players with a plethora of betting options, totaling 21 in number.

Understanding the Betting Landscape

Betting in the Evolution Powerball is categorized into Regular Ball and Powerball segments. For the Regular Ball:

  • Odd (O): The sum of the five numbers is odd.
  • Even (E): The sum is even.
  • Under (U): The sum is 72 or below.
  • Over (O): The sum is 73 or above.
  • High (H): The sum lies between 81 and 130.
  • Mid (M): The sum is from 65 to 80.
  • Low (L): The sum ranges from 15 to 64.

Additionally, combinations such as Odd & Under, Odd & Over, and Even & Under, among others, add depth and variety to the betting experience on the 파워볼 메이저사이트.
For the Powerball:

  • Odd (O): The Powerball number is odd.
  • Even (E): The number is even.
  • Under (U): The number is 4 or below.
  • Over (O): The number is 5 or above.

The Drawing Process: A Dynamic Experience
The game commences with the primary machine drawing five numbers from a set ranging from 1 to 28. Once the betting window concludes, these numbers are showcased on the betting grid. The sum of these numbers determines the outcome of this round. Winning bets are accentuated, with the chips remaining on the screen, contributing to the total winnings at the game’s end on the 파워볼 안전사이트.

The Powerball Round: The Climax

Following the conclusion of the primary machine’s draw, the Powerball round ensues. The secondary machine, containing 10 white balls numbered from 0 to 9, springs into action. As the first regular ball is unveiled, this machine begins its shuffle. A single Powerball is drawn, captivating the audience. The number is also displayed beside the betting grid, with winning bets highlighted and losing chips disappearing from the grid on the 에볼루션파워볼 안전사이트.

High Returns and Fair Play

One of the standout features of the Evolution Powerball is its impressive Return to Player (RTP) rate of 98.5%. This high percentage not only enhances the game’s appeal but also underscores its credibility and fairness on the 에볼루션파워볼 메이저사이트.

In Conclusion

Evolution Powerball is not just another game in the market; it’s a testament to Evolution Gaming’s dedication to offering unparalleled gaming experiences. By seamlessly integrating traditional elements with innovative features, they’ve crafted a game that’s both nostalgic and refreshingly novel on the 에볼루션파워볼 오토. Whether you’re a seasoned lottery enthusiast or a newcomer to the online gaming realm, Evolution Powerball promises a thrilling and rewarding adventure.


Create High-Quality Animated GIFs Easily with AI

How to Create Animated GIFs For Web Developers

From eye-catching landing page GIFs to funny ones for group chats, AI has made it easier than ever to turn your artistic vision into high-quality animated graphics. Just enter a description to start generating one-of-a-kind GIFs in no time for free.

This version of video> uses WebM and MP4 video files. Browsers that don’t support WebM will fall back to MP4.

AI GIF Generator

GIFs add humor, context, and personality to digital communication. They can be as simple or as complex as you like. You can use a GIF generator to create a custom animated video with a specific prompt or theme. The best AI GIF generators offer quick generation times, a diverse library of content, and a variety of styles. Some also offer a thriving community for collaboration and inspiration.

This AI GIF maker allows you to easily swap faces, crop, resize, rotate, reverse, optimize, and add text, stickers, filters, and other effects to your GIFs. Its advanced technology ensures that your finished GIFs are well-optimized for the popular social media platforms. You can also choose from a variety of frames and add music to your creations. It works with both desktop and mobile devices. Artbreeder is an innovative AI art GIF generator that lets you generate diverse images and animations by mixing and blending different images, styles, and genes.

Animated GIF Generator

GIFs are not just used for reaction comments on social media anymore – businesses are now using them in paid ads, as microsites, landing pages and even in their customer support articles. This is why it’s important to find a high quality online GIF maker that lets you create professional looking animations.

Our online GIF maker supports BMP, JPEG, PNG and other image file types as well as video files such as AVI and FLV. We also provide a delay time input field so you can adjust how long each frame of your animated GIF will stay on screen.

Easily upload logos, icons, illustrations, characters, lines, shapes and more from our design library to customize your animated GIF. You can also add text to your design and choose from thousands of fonts. With just a few clicks, you can have an eye-catching animated GIF that your audience will love. Plus, you can share your creation over a direct link or embed it into your website.

Text-Based GIF Generator

Animated text GIFs are an effective way to communicate ideas and keep readers engaged. However, they can pose accessibility challenges for users with photosensitive epilepsy who may experience flashing content at a rate of 2 Hz or higher, or visual impairments that require the use of assistive technology like screen readers to interpret.

To address these issues, it’s important to create a GIF that is not too long and has a slow animation rate. Additionally, it’s important to provide alternative text that describes the content of a GIF for users with visual impairments.

Kapwing’s online gif maker provides a simple and intuitive text editor that allows you to customize your GIF text size, alignment and style. You can also add a text shadow and change the timing or duration of your GIF text. The tool also offers hundreds of creative fonts to choose from. Try using this tool for your next animated text gif project.

Custom GIF Generator

GIFs are used to add humor, elicit emotions and convey messages quickly and efficiently. They are also an excellent way to show off your brand’s visual identity and communicate with your audience.

Start with a professionally-designed template to create a stunning animated image or video for your personal or business needs. You can select photos, icons, illustrations, characters and lines to personalize your design with ease.

Choose an upload button to select media from your computer or paste a URL for online videos. Then, use the frame by frame editor to tweak each element’s properties and values to get the desired result.

The GIF format supports a palette of up to 256 colors chosen from the 24-bit RGB color space. It uses the Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) lossless data compression technique to reduce file size without degrading visual quality. However, it is not suitable for reproducing full-color photographs or other images with complex gradients. It is best suited for simple graphics or logos.

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The Memetic Evolution of Deus Vult

Deus Vult – The Motto of the Knights of the Crusades

Deus vult is a Latin phrase meaning “God wills it”. It’s become associated with medieval knights and is used as a rallying cry in many medieval strategy video games. It has also gained popularity amongst r/The_Donald shitposters as a meme denoting anti-Islamic sentiment.

It’s hard to tell whether or not the deus vult-posters on 4chan’s /pol/ are trolls or hold ethno-nationalist and authoritarian views. The ephemerality and anonymity of the board makes it difficult to know which memes are ironic and which are serious.


The motto deus vult, or “God wills it,” was originally shouted by the crusaders during the medieval crusades. It was later adopted as the motto of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, a Roman Catholic order of chivalry. This expression has since become associated with knights, and is used in many popular games.

The use of deus vult by the far-right on 4chan and r/pol/ can be framed through a political tendency towards a reactionary view of traditional nation-states. This is often based on the idea that certain countries are best left with their original ethnic makeup. This idea can be seen in the neoreactionary movement, a group of white nationalists that embraces medieval ideology and symbology.

The chanting of deus vult during the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville in August 2017 showed how memes can quickly make the jump from harmless transgression to violent extremism. The use of this meme by neoreactionaries in the video game community has also been met with controversy.


The phrase deus vult, meaning “God wills it,” was the rallying cry of Christian crusaders in the First Crusade. It was uttered in response to Pope Urban II’s call for war at the Council of Clermont in 1095, when he asked for help from Christian warriors to defend the Eastern Orthodox Church against the Seljuk invasion of Anatolia.

In modern times, the phrase has gained popularity as an Internet meme. It has been used by neo-Nazi groups and other right-wing extremists to promote their own xenophobic, anti-immigration views. It is also associated with the symbol of the Knights Templar, a military religious order founded in the early 12th century.

This symbol is often seen on flags and other paraphernalia promoting the group, including the deus vult motto. It is a red cross on a white field, reminiscent of the uniforms worn by crusaders. In addition to being a popular online meme, deus vult is also used by some right-wing activists to support the policies of President Trump and other conservative leaders.


In medieval Europe, the phrase deus vult was used as a crowd chant to embolden Roman Catholic Crusaders in their battles for Jerusalem. It is reported that the phrase was chanted by Christian soldiers as they stormed into Muslim cities, according to both the Gesta Francorum and the Historia belli sacri.

In modern times, the phrase deus vult is often used as a hateful rallying cry by neo-nazi and far-right groups that revile Middle Eastern culture and religion. They use it to justify violence against Muslims and other non-Christians.

The phrase deus vult also appears in popular board games like Castle Fight and Crusader Kings, where it is a part of the game’s name. It is a popular meme in the gaming community and has been used in several conversations between friends on social media. It is a reference to the belief that any action done in the name of God will be successful. This is a belief that has led to many bloody holy wars throughout history.


The latin phrase deus vult, meaning God wills it, was a crowd-pleasing battle cry during the Crusades. It was a response to a 1095 sermon by Pope Urban II urging the west to come to the aid of the Orthodox Byzantine Empire, which was under attack from Muslim invaders.

In the modern era, this phrase has found new life online, where it’s become a meme. It’s been embraced by fans of the strategy video game Crusader Kings 2 and on social media, particularly 4chan’s /pol/ board and Reddit’s r/The_Donald subreddit.

The phrase deus vult has also been adopted by the Knights Templar, a military religious order founded in the early 12th century. It is the group’s motto and appears on their coat of arms. It’s also been used by supporters of the alt-right movement in America, a conservative political movement that promotes white nationalism and anti-immigration policies. This movement has been criticized for its anti-Muslim rhetoric and has been compared to Islamic extremism.

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The Influence of Number Selections on Powerball Winnings

Is Powerball Based on Luck Or Skill?

Powerball is one of the world’s most popular lottery games. It has set several 바카라사이트 에볼루션파워볼 records and offers some of the largest jackpots. It also offers a mobile app and free text See More Information alerts.

Each play costs $2 and includes five white ball numbers from 1 to 69 and one red Powerball number from 1 to 26. Players can also purchase a Power Play option for an additional $1.

Lottery games

Lottery games are popular worldwide and have a reputation for producing large jackpots. These prizes range from hundreds of millions of dollars to billions of dollars. However, many players wonder if lottery games are based on luck or skill.

While there is no definitive answer, it is generally agreed that a player’s selection of numbers can influence the outcome of their winnings. This is because some number combinations have a greater chance of being drawn than others.

If you don’t want to fill out your own Powerball ticket, you can ask the clerk for a Quick Pick instead. This option costs $2 per play and randomly selects your five numbers from 1-69 and one Powerball number from 1-26. You can also add the Power Play option, which doubles the jackpot or multiplies non-jackpot prize amounts.


If you want to play Powerball, you must select five numbers between 1 and 69 and one Powerball number between 1 and 26. The ticket produced by the lottery terminal at the retailer is your only proof of entry and must be presented in order to claim a prize. The ticket must be unaltered and contain data that corresponds to the selling lottery’s computer records. Prize money left unclaimed after a drawing will be redistributed at the discretion of each selling lottery.

Odds of winning

The odds of winning the Powerball jackpot or a smaller prize depend on the number of ticket combinations. The chance of winning any prize is less than one in ten thousand. This is comparable to the probability that you will die in an automobile accident. Government statistics show that there are about 1.7 auto-related deaths for every 100,000,000 miles driven.

However, there are some things you can do to improve your chances of winning. For example, if you use the Quick Pick selection instead of choosing your own numbers, your odds increase slightly. 에볼루션파워볼 You can also join a lottery syndicate, which increases your odds of winning by reducing the competition. You can even find a Powerball website that offers lottery syndicates! However, be aware that the number of winners can reduce prize levels.

Taxes on winnings

Despite the enormous sums of money splashed across lottery news headlines, winning Powerball can be a costly affair. Not only must winners pay federal taxes, but state and city taxes may also apply. These taxes 카지노사이트 can eat up as much as 11% of the jackpot.

There are many smart ways to spend a windfall gain, such as paying down high-rate debts and saving for emergencies. Choosing to take a lump sum payout or an annuity is another important factor to consider.

If you choose an annuity, you can reduce your tax bill by opting for annual payments over the course of 29 years. However, this will lower the total value of your prize by a few million dollars. Fortunately, you can avoid the biggest hit to your winnings by claiming the jackpot in a state that does not impose an income tax.


While Powerball winners are often hailed for their generosity, some scammers will Get More Info use those winnings 에볼루션사이트 에볼루션파워볼 to make their own fortune. Scams can take many forms, including letters and emails, text messages and phone calls. Some are phishing attempts that seek to steal personal information. Others involve bogus lottery processing fees. Never provide Read More Info this type of information or send money to a stranger.

You can avoid lottery scams by examining any correspondence you receive. Look for misspellings and other errors, as well as a lack of proper grammar. Also, remember that real lottery winners will never ask you to pay upfront handling fees in order to claim a prize. This is a red flag that the lottery prize is a scam.

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A tech company’s secret project allows for glimpses into the past, with deadly consequences.

Devs (TV)

Computer engineers Lily Chan (Sonoya Mizuno) and Sergei Kenton (Karl Glusman) work at the mysterious tech company Amaya. A giant, creepy statue of a young girl looms over the company’s wooded campus. The company was named after the deceased daughter of Forest (Nick Offerman), its enigmatic CEO.

Like his work in Ex Machina and Annihilation, writer-director Alex Garland deftly juggles heady sci-fi concepts with real-world issues.

What is Amaya?

Amaya is an open-source Web development tool for editing and publishing XML documents. It is able to combine a variety of XML vocabularies, including SGML, XHTML, MathML, and SVG. It also supports a number of collaborative annotation applications.

What if a Silicon Valley behemoth ran a top-secret project that could peer into the past and glean insight someone would only get with a time machine? That’s the intriguing premise of Devs, a new limited series from Ex Machina and Annihilation director Alex Garland.

The first three episodes have focused on the mysterious “Devs” department of Amaya, the tech company run by Forest (Nick Offerman). They’ve been working on quantum coding that allows them to view projections of the past. But what exactly is their endgame? A lot remains unclear, but episode four provides a bit more clarity. It turns out that they’re actually a way for Forest to see his dead daughter again. This theory ties into the show’s frequent references to wave function imagery and its strong belief in determinism and lack of free will.

What is Devs?

Devs is a science-fiction limited series from writer-director Alex Garland, who made his mark with the transfixing Ex Machina and Annihilation. The show follows software engineer Lily Chan, who investigates the mysterious development branch of her employer, a cutting-edge tech giant called Amaya. It stars Sonoya Mizuno as Lily; Nick Offerman as Forest, the CEO of Amaya; Karl Glusman as Sergei, her long-term boyfriend and nemesis at work; Cailee Spaeny as Jamie, a smart, young colleague; Stephen McKinley Henderson as Stewart, one of Amaya’s top scientists; and Alison Pill as Katie, Forest’s second-in-command.

Katie and the other Devs staff have designed a computer system that can see everything that has ever happened, and predict what will happen in the future — but it operates on the theory of multiple universes, so the timeline in which Lily shoots Forest may not actually be the only possible outcome. When a senator visits to discuss using the system for government purposes, she reveals that her death was predicted by the Devs software.

What is Lily Chan?

A software engineer for enigmatic tech company Amaya, Lily Chan is drawn into a project with profound consequences. Streaming Thursdays on FX and Hulu, the new series is directed by Alex Garland, who wrote and directed “Ex Machina” and “Annihilation.” The cast includes Nick Offerman as Forest, Amaya’s CEO; Alison Pill as Katie, a physicist; Sonoya Mizuno as Lily; Jin Ha as Jamie, another physics whiz; Zach Grenier as Colin; Stephen McKinley Henderson as Stewart; and Cailee Spaeny as Lyndon.

The show centers on the mysterious Amaya, which develops quantum computing. It has a super powerful computer system that can see and predict human behavior. Founder Forest names the company after his daughter, but she died as an infant. A creepy child statue looms over the headquarters. When a coworker named Sergei dies suspiciously, Lily suspects he was killed by Kenton, Amaya’s chief security officer. He suffocated him. Then he broke into his RV and tried to steal the project’s code.

What is Forest Fores?

Forest, played by Parks and Recreation star Nick Offerman, is the CEO of a vaguely Google-esque tech company. He is able to hire top-notch programmers like Sergei, who is gifted a coveted position on Amaya’s quantum computing team known as Devs.

They work inside a massive, ominously gleaming lab that looks less like a modern corporate research facility and more like a fever dream of a Stanley Kubrick set. Despite the claustrophobic atmosphere and the cryptic language, there are glimpses of warmth in this world. For instance, a statue of Amaya holding an object that resembles a frisbee.

It becomes clear that the main end game of Amaya’s coding project is to bring back her lost daughter. To do so, the scientists must peer into time and glean insight they could never get with a normal machine. But that insight comes with a cost, which inevitably is deadly. The FX/Hulu series is a claustrophobic sci-fi thriller that’s difficult to navigate but well worth the effort.

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